國造半自動步槍第一人- 劉慶恩將軍

The first Chinese semi-automatic rifle by General Liu Qing En


Article & Photos by: Bin Shih

劉慶恩將軍生於1869年10月10日,原籍廣東客家,寄籍四川德陽。 成年後畢業於廣東水陸師學堂。
General Liu was born on October 10, 1869 in Sichuang, China. He graduated from the Quang Dong Provincial Army Navy Academy.

He participated in the battle against Japanese takeover in Tainan, Taiwan in 1896 and served under the “Black Flag General” Liu Yong Fu, during the course he suffered leg injury.

之後, 受聘於湖北槍炮廠任技工, 報考出國留學, 錄取後,由湖北省保送赴日本留學。
After returning to Mainland, he joined Hanyang Arsenal and worked in the factory as a technician. He later participated in the program indented to select students to be sent abroad to study. He was chosen by Hu Bei Province and was sent to Japan.

After graduating from High School in Japan, he enrolled in Tokyo Imperial University and majored in Mechanics and Ordnance.

畢業之後仍回湖北槍炮廠工作, 1909年由廠方送到德國克魯伯兵工廠學習考察。
He returned to Hanyang after he obtained a degree. In 1909, he visited Krupp in Germany on behalf of the Hanyang Arsenal.

劉慶恩在日本時即加入同盟會, 革命成功後, 中山先生任臨時大總統後,遂委派慶恩先生爲漢陽兵工廠第一任總辦。
Liu joined Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s revolution movement while he was in Japan. He was appointed the first Superintendent of Hanyang Arsenal by Dr. Sun after Dr. Sun was elected as the Provisional President of the Republic of China in 1912.

美國布列得公司於1914年1月15日致函劉慶恩說明新槍廠的計劃(註4: p285), 合同於4月11日簽署(註4: p297), 並由陸軍部呈報袁世凱總統。 總價美金1,082,500, 言明24個月交貨。(註4: p288) A letter to General Liu dated January 15, 1914 from Pratt & Whitney(Note 4: p285), outlined the ability of Pratt & Whitney and its approach to the proposed new Arsenal. The contract was signed on April 11, 1914(Note 4: p297). A report to the President Yuan dated May 1, 1914(Note 4: p288) from the Army department confirmed the deal totaled US$1,082,500.00 to be delivered in 24 months.

劉慶恩1914年9月抵達美國康乃狄克州哈德佛特城,隨從七人。 監造新槍廠的機器生產並熟悉機器操作程序。
General Liu, his family and other seven subordinates arrived in Hartford, Connecticut in September, 1914. The trip was to inspect and get familiarization with the machinery being produced by Pratt & Whitney.

191698日, 陸軍部軍械司在南苑試放劉慶恩所製造的新槍。 名為自裝槍。
On September 8, 1916, the Ordnance office of the Army Department tested the semi-automatic rifle designed by General Liu in Nan Yuan Proving Ground, Beijing.

口徑 7.9mm
槍管長 703.1mm
初速 780m/s
連刺刀重 5kg
彈重 10g(尖彈)
射速 50/
裝彈 6
彈倉 內裝

The rifle uses Muzzle Gas Trap type system
Caliber: 7.9mm
Barrel Length: 703.1mm
Muzzle Velocity: 780m/s
Weight(with Bayonet): 5kg
Bullet Weight: 10g(Spitzer type)
Rate of fire: 50 rd/min
Capacity: 6
Magazine: Built-in

自裝放改變為尋常放時, 只須將槍口束汽筒旋轉, 使三小孔向外, 即成直拉式步槍。 其二字為普、 自。
To change the operation of the rifle, rotate the cylinder on the muzzle. When the three holes pointed outwards, the rifle turns into a straight pull repeater. The settings are either “Normal” or “Auto”.

Muzzle gas trap cap.

The view of the barrel muzzle after removing the Gas Trap cylinder.

導桿及槍匣, 注意槍匣內下方的凹槽, 供槍機閉鎖用。
Gas piston rod and receiver. Note the recess on the bottom of the receiver, it is for the bolt locking.

自裝槍採用了楔形後方閉鎖, 類似於江南製造局所生產之快利步槍。
The rifle is rear locking and adopted similar wedge locking like Steyr 1888 or the Kuaili rifle produced by Jiangnan Arsenal.

Due to the rear locking, the bolt does not have front lock lugs. The extractor is missing in this example.

There is a shell deflector milled onto the right side of the receiver.

表尺距離為2000公尺, 表尺正面及兩方均有刻度。
The rear sight has graduation out to 2,000m. The markings are on the face and both sides.

自裝槍的下方, 無固定螺絲。
The bottom view of the rifle, no locking screws.

槍托有滑門, 向上推可取出銅管裝的擦槍工具。
There is a sliding door at the butt plate. Push up reveal a copper tube containing cleaning tools.

槍匣上的陸軍漢陽兵工廠印記, 全槍無烤藍,北洋時代,兵工廠屬陸軍部該管。
The marking on the receiver:
Made by Army Hanyang Arsenal, the whole gun was left in the white.

1919年夏末於軍部開會, 先生情緒激昂導致腦溢血, 半身不遂, 辭去兵工廠總辦職務, 1929年4月去逝於上海。
In the late summer of 1919, during an Army Department meeting, General was over excited and resulted in a stroke. The stroke caused the paralysis of one side of his body. He resigned soon after and he passed away in Shanghai in April, 1929.

自裝槍曾在1918年為美國陸軍測試, 從此沒入歷史, 再不見於任何記載。
The US Army Ordnance Office tested the rifle in 1918. After that, it simply disappeared into history and never mentioned again in any document.

筆者相信, 當年製出的數量不過十數把, 而如今存世的自裝槍不到十把, 絕大部份在美國。
This writer believes, there were only less than a dozen of this rifle produced both in the US and China. There are less than 10 survived today, most of them if not all are in United States.

1919年, 布列得公司將生產之機具運抵上海。 有兩年多的時間, 該批機具無人過問。 1921年, 終於轉交給新建之鞏縣兵工廠, 許多機件已經繡蝕。 (4: p112)鞏廠以該批機械開始生產基於毛瑟1907式之四年式步槍, 稱為鞏98步槍。 1935年, 基於德國毛瑟圖紙, 首造中正式步騎槍。 歷史的巧合是, 1939年, 11廠將步槍廠交給1-即是前漢陽兵工廠, 20年之後, 終於物歸原主。
The machineries from Pratt & Whitney were delivered to Shanghai, in 1919. They sat in the warehouses for 2 years. They were finally delivered to the newly formed Gong Xian Arsenal in 1921(Note4: p112) and were used to produce a copy of Mauser 1907, named Gong 98 Rifle. In 1935, it was the first to produce model Chiang Kai-Shek rifle, based on the Mauser provided Standard Modell prints. The irony was, in 1939, the Rifle Factory was transferred to the 1st Arsenal – previous Hanyang Arsenal. After 20 years, they finally went back to where they were intended to be.

倘若該批機具準時運抵, 劉慶恩尚在主事, 自裝槍源源生產, 中國將為世界上最早配置半自動步槍的國家之一。
Supposed the machineries arrived on time and General Liu was still in charge. This semi-automatic rifle would be rolling out of the production line of Hanyang. China would be among the first to arm its troops with semi-automatic rifles in the world.


1.     The rifle belongs to Robert W. Faris, Wickenburg, Arizona. His generosity to grant access to the rifle and photograph is greatly appreciated.

2.     All photographs by Bin Shih, please do not use without permission.

3.     General Liu’s biography information mostly provided by the grand daughter of General Liu – Ms. Liu Bo Ning. She lives in Shen Yang City, Liao Ning Province, China.

4.     Historical Records of the Modern Chinese Ordnance Industry, Vol. 2.


1.     文中的自裝槍屬於Robert W. Faris, Wickenburg, Arizona. 感謝其慷慨提供該槍用於拍照。

2.     所有照片由火器堂堂主拍攝, 未經授權, 請勿轉用。

3.      劉將軍的生平, 大部份資料由劉將軍的孫女劉伯寧提供, 劉女士目前住在中國遼寧省瀋陽市

4.     中國近代兵器工業檔案史料(二)。